Tag Archive for: architecture
https://i0.wp.com/tmsifting.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/11/doric-pf.jpg?fit=495%2C400&ssl=1 400 495 Zachi Dvira https://tmsifting.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/09/compact-for-enfold-1.png Zachi Dvira2019-11-15 12:19:362020-04-13 10:58:59Column Capital of the Doric Order (2nd cent. BCE – 1st cent. CE)
A column capital (75 cm in diameter) of the Doric order, which originally rested on a column approximately 4.5m in height. This capital is of exceptional shape, and may have stood in “Solomon’s Porch”, the eastern portico of the Temple Mount built before the Herodian construction (Jewish Wars 5.145; John 10:23; Acts 3:11). Capitals of the Doric order are known in Second Temple Period Jerusalem in the Tomb of the Hezir priestly family, in the Western Wall Tunnels, in the Ophel south of the Temple Mount and in additional sites, and are dated to the days of the Hasmonaean dynasty and onwards.
https://i0.wp.com/tmsifting.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/09/Opus-Sectile-crusader-Module-2-1.jpg?fit=495%2C400&ssl=1 400 495 P. Moshe Shamah https://tmsifting.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/09/compact-for-enfold-1.png P. Moshe Shamah2019-09-24 15:52:332020-04-13 11:01:42Reconstructed Opus Sectile Floor Patterns of the Crusader Era (12th Cent. CE)
Opus Sectile Floor Tiles from the Crusader Era Unlike their Herodian counterpart, these tiles were cut from local stone, in units based on the inch. These tiles decorated the floors in the Dome of the Rock which was converted into a church - the Templum Domini during this period. Here, we have reconstructed floor patterns based on tiles found in the sifting. Similar patterns can be seen to this day in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher and in the Dome of the Rock.
https://i0.wp.com/tmsifting.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/09/איור-5-2.jpg?fit=495%2C400&ssl=1 400 495 P. Moshe Shamah https://tmsifting.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/09/compact-for-enfold-1.png P. Moshe Shamah2019-09-24 15:45:392020-04-13 11:01:53Reconstructed Opus Sectile Floor Patterns from Herod’s Temple Courts (20 BCE – 70 CE)
Opus Sectile floor tiles from Herod’s Temple and surrounding courts. Like many other techniques originating in the Roman world, Opus sectile floors were first used locally in Herod’s grandiose buildings. The tiles were meticulously cut in geometric shapes, and precisely fitted into a colorful geometric pattern based on the Roman foot (29.6 cm). The multi-colored tiles were imported from a variety of locales, including Asia Minor, Greece, Tunisia and Egypt. These magnificent floor tiles give us yet another glimpse into the splendor of Herod’s Temple, and illuminate the texts which have been studied for thousands of years and never fully appreciated — such as Josephus’ description: “Those entire courts that were exposed to the sky were laid with stones of all colors and all sorts” (War of the Jews V.192). Using geometric principles, in addition to parallels found at other Herodian sites, we have succeeded in restoring the ornate tile patters that decorated the courts of Herod’s Temple Mount.
https://i0.wp.com/tmsifting.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/09/fig30-low-res-1-1.jpg?fit=495%2C400&ssl=1 400 495 P. Moshe Shamah https://tmsifting.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/09/compact-for-enfold-1.png P. Moshe Shamah2019-09-24 15:43:132020-04-13 11:02:01Ottoman Glazed Wall Tiles (16th-20th Cent. CE)
The Ottoman Sultan, Suleiman I (Suleiman the Magnificent), ordered the weathered glass mosaics replaced with glazed tiles during the 16th century, but nothing lasts forever. From the 16th till the 20th century, tiles have been replaced time and again, each time with new styles and techniques. This style of tiles didn’t solely exist in the 16th century, but continues on to modern times, and such tiles adorn famous and high-profile buildings across Jerusalem. In the early 20th century, for this special artisan work, the authorities invited David Ohannessian, an Anatolian-Armenian refugee after the events of the Armenian Genocide, to create a special workshop for creating new wall tiles for replacing the existing deteriorating tiles from the exterior walls of the Dome of the Rock.
https://i0.wp.com/tmsifting.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/09/Glass-Tessarae-1.jpg?fit=495%2C400&ssl=1 400 495 P. Moshe Shamah https://tmsifting.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/09/compact-for-enfold-1.png P. Moshe Shamah2019-09-24 15:35:502020-04-13 11:02:15Glass Tesserae from the Exterior Wall of the Dome of the Rock (7th Century CE.)
A myriad of mosaic tesserae have been recovered by the project. While the stone tesserae cubes were used for mosaic floors, some pictured above are glass mosaic tesserae, cast and cut in many colors, including large quantities of gilded tesserae. These pieces, along with mother of pearl inlays, form intricate wall mosaics which cover many wall sections of the Dome of the Rock, the Dome of the Chain and the Al-Aqsa Mosque. The mosaics from the outer walls of the Dome of the Rock were replaced by glazed ceramic tiles during the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, in the 16th century. The dislodged tesserae cubes were buried in the olive grove in the eastern section of the Temple Mount. The dirt that was removed from the Temple Mount during the years 1999-2000 originate from that area and this is why so many glass tesserae cubes were recovered in the sifting.
https://i0.wp.com/tmsifting.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/09/DSC_1108-low-res-1-1.jpg?fit=495%2C400&ssl=1 400 495 P. Moshe Shamah https://tmsifting.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/09/compact-for-enfold-1.png P. Moshe Shamah2019-09-24 15:34:342020-04-14 15:25:20Decorated Plaster Fragments in the Greco-Roman Style (1st Cent. BCE – 2nd Cent. CE)
Thousands upon thousands of plaster fragments, both antique and modern, have been recovered during the sifting. Mostly plain, but the shear volume of our finds has allowed us to amass thousands of painted plaster pieces, including ancient frescoes. The word fresco, derived from the Italian word meaning “fresh”, refers to a specific type of decorative plaster, where the plaster is painted while still wet. This necessitated a fast and precise hand and a lot of pre-planning, but the result was vibrant, long-enduring paintings. While earlier versions have been around since prehistory, classical frescoes first appeared in Israel during the Hellenisitic Period, and like many other techniques from the Greco-Roman world, it was drawn upon heavily by Herod. Pictured above is a selection of plaster fragments reminiscent of the Second Pompeian Style, popular during the time of Herod. The paintings would have been comprised of square and rectangular panels of vibrant colors — red, black, white, yellow, and green, and surrounded by a margin mimicking the look of hewn drafted stone. Other elements include drawn architectural elements, such as pillars and capitals, and bordering motifs, such as waves, meanders and wreaths. Some panels were painted to mimic marble and alabaster slabs, serving as a much cheaper substitute to the imported stone.
https://i0.wp.com/tmsifting.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/09/3241-lowerlow-res-1-2.jpg?fit=495%2C400&ssl=1 400 495 P. Moshe Shamah https://tmsifting.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/09/compact-for-enfold-1.png P. Moshe Shamah2019-09-24 15:33:272020-04-13 11:02:40Byzantine Chancel-Screen Fragment (4th-7th Cent. CE)
A fragment of a Byzantine-era marble chancel-screen, decorated with floral motifs. These screens were popular in the mid to late 6th century CE. Chancel screens were utilized in early Byzantine church architecture to separate the inner sanctuary from the main body of the church. The panels often incorporated Christian symbols, and later on, natural or abstract motifs. This fragment and others like it, have joined the growing body of evidence that suggest that during the Byzantine Period, the Temple Mount was home to at least some churches or monasteries, and not completely empty, as has been previously assumed.
https://i0.wp.com/tmsifting.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/09/91052-3-low-res-1-1.jpg?fit=495%2C400&ssl=1 400 495 P. Moshe Shamah https://tmsifting.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/09/compact-for-enfold-1.png P. Moshe Shamah2019-09-24 15:32:032020-04-14 15:25:25Roof Tile of the Tenth Roman Legion (1st Cent. CE)
A roof-tile fragment stamped with the name of the Tenth Roman Legion — Legio X Fretensis (notice the malformed F followed by RE). The Tenth Legion was called up from Egypt to help suppress the Great Jewish Revolt in the year 66 CE. After defeating the Jews and destroying the Temple, the Legion remained stationed in Jerusalem for several centuries. Many artifacts related to the Tenth Legion have been found in the environs of the Temple Mount, as well as near the Jerusalem Citadel, sparking an academic debate as to the location of the legion’s campgrounds.
https://i0.wp.com/tmsifting.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/09/3285A-low-res-2-1.jpg?fit=495%2C400&ssl=1 400 495 P. Moshe Shamah https://tmsifting.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2019/09/compact-for-enfold-1.png P. Moshe Shamah2019-09-24 15:31:022020-04-13 11:02:55A Fragment of an Elaborately Decorated Frieze (1st Cent. BCE – 1st Cent. CE)
A fragment from an elaborate stone façade, pehapds a frieze, of the Early Roman Period adorned with patterns of Herodian style acanthus leaves carved in relief. The object originated from one of the Herodian structures on the Temple Mount, perhaps from the Temple itself. The stone fragment exhibits conflagration marks, similar to other stone fragments found in excavations south of the Temple Mount, and associated with architectural members that were shattered as the result of the intense fire that destroyed the Temple.