Early Islamic Destruction Layer?

Artifacts from Early Islamic Period may be from 658 CE earthquake.
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Archaeological Evidence of the Jewish Temples on the Temple Mount

Historical sources and selected artifacts given to show proof of the First and Second Jewish Temples on the Temple Mount. Jews and Christians have a real and documented relationship to the Temple Mount.

Portfolio Items


Lead Israeli Bulla Kashrut Seal, Post-1967

A lead bulla of the Israeli period, post-1967, bearing a Hebrew inscription. Side A: Kosher Side B: Two letters; probably the initials of the kashrut supervisor. Note the bit of plastic on the side, a remnant of the food wrapper this seal was affixed to.

Lead Bulla Republic of Lebanon 1943

A lead bulla. The Arabic inscription, reading “The Republic of Lebanon”, postdate the artifact to 1943, the year of Lebanese independence.

Lead Bulla of the Vatican (19th-20th Cent. CE)

A lead bulla of the Vatican. Obverse: Coat of Arms of the Vatican Reverse: Verifica S.C.V — Authenticated by the City State of the Vatican. The style of the bulla and its inscription point to a date in the 19th–20th centuries.

Ottoman Bronze Stamp of Abd Al-Fatah Al Tamimi (18th Cent. CE)

An Ottoman bronze stamp, from the early 18th century CE. Inscription: الثيح \عبد \ الفتاح \ التميمي; ‛Abd al-Fatah al Tamimi The Sheikh. ‛Abd al-Fatah al Tamimi was a well known Muslim judge and legislator, serving as kadi in Nablus, Ramla and Gaza, and as deputy-Mufti in Jerusalem. This seal is one several Ottoman seals of the 18th–20th centuries found by the project, many bearing given names and official titles

Seal of the Winemakers of Rhodes (2nd Cent. BCE)

An Amphora handle bearing the mark of winemakers of the Island of Rhodes, from the 2nd century BCE. The Rose, symbol of Rhodes is evident in the center, surrounded by a Greek inscription naming the eponym — the clerk in charge during that year.

Seal of Hisilyahu, Son of Immer (7th Cent. BCE)

A Judean, Late First Temple period (7th century BCE), clay sealing bearing the name [Hi]ṩilyahu son of Immer. This artifact represents the most direct evidence ever uncovered of the administration of the First Temple. The clay sealing was affixed to a cloth lid of a container, and is reminiscent of many such sealings found in temple and palace treasuries throughout the Ancient Near East. The Immer family, of which the owner of the seal was a proud member, operated in the First Temple, and one of its members is referred to in the Bible as “chief governor in the house of the LORD” (Jer. 20:1). This sealing may have sealed a container of provisions for the Temple, or valuables kept in the Temple treasury, overseen by priests of the Immer family. This is the first Hebrew inscription from the Temple itself ever discovered, relating directly the the administrative duties overseen by the priests.

Handle Fragment of a Royal Storage Jar (8th Cent. BCE)

A handle fragment of a royal storage jar, of the 8th century BCE. Prior to the firing of the jar, its handle was stamped with a seal, of which just the wingtip of a two-winged royal icon remains visible. Above the royal icon, word LMLK ("of…

Conical First Temple Seal (11-10th Cent. BCE)

A conical stone seal of the Early First Temple period (late 11th – early 10th century BCE), depicting a pair of animals, possibly a predator and its prey. Seals of similar type have been found in late Iron age I – early Iron Age II sites throughout the country, Judean and Canaanite alike.

Scarab Seals on Soapstone (2nd Mil. BCE)

A soapstone (steatite) Egyptian scarab, of the 2nd Millennium BCE. Note the remnants of a bronze clasp. Pictured is an Egyptian deity (possibly Sekhmet) wielding a staff, beside hieroglyphs.