Portfolio Items

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Roman Goat Figurine (2nd-4th Cent. CE)

A small cermaic Roman-style goat's head, that probably was attached to some flat object. This figurine may be associated with the worship of the Roman god Pan or Aegipan (Goat-Pan).
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Stamp Seal of the Islamic Waqf (19th-20th Cent. CE)

A large ink-stained stamp, reading “Islamic Waqf”. 19th–20th century.
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Personal Quran Pendant (15th-16th CE)

A tiny book-shaped (Qur’an?) metal pendant of the late Islamic period, either Mamluk or Ottoman. On both sides — the word “Allah” and four five-pointed-stars.
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The Our Lady of Lourdes Pendant (1858 CE)

A silver-bronze alloy pendant. Side A: The Virgin Mary with the legend “Je suis l’immaculée conception” Side B: The basilica of Lourdes with the legend “[Sa]nctuaire de N.D. de Lourdes 1858” As the writing suggests, these pendants, commemorating the apparition of Our Lady of Lourdes, date from the year 1858 onward. Were the Temple Mount and the Lourdes Basilica on the route of the same pilgrim?
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Zoomorphic Early Muslim Vessel (7th - 9th Cent. CE)

Not every figurine represents worship. This head comes not from an idol, but from an animal-shaped (zoomorphic) vessel. The head served as the neck of this unique jar, with the mouth acting as the spout, and the handle attached to its neck. Dated to the Umayyad or early Abbasid period (7th–9th century CE), the function of these vessels is unclear, but it was likely frowned upon by stricter iconoclasts, who would’ve viewed it as a forbidden graven image.
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Byzantine Bread Stamp (5th - 7th Cent. CE)

Bread stamps with floral motifs, used to stamp the sacramental bread for the Eucharist rite. Byzantine period, 5th–7th century. Sacramental bread was round and unleavened – a larger version of the modern-day Communion wafer which are similar to crackers, and hence the seals were flat and wide which enabled a large section of the bread to be stamped.
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Metal Crusader Cross (11th Cent. CE)

Dozens of stone, bronze, bone and mother-of-pearl crosses, from the Byzantine and the Crusader periods we found in the sifting. Some of them depict with incision and relief an image of Jesus Christ. These object we probably used by pilgrims as pendants or incorporated into rosaries.
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Byzantine Stone Cross (5th - 7th Cent. CE)

Dozens of stone, bronze, bone and mother-of-pearl crosses, from the Byzantine and the Crusader periods we found in the sifting. Some of them depict with incision and relief an image of Jesus Christ. These object we probably used by pilgrims as pendants or incorporated into rosaries.
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The Head of an Animal Figurine (8th Cent. BCE)

A head fragment of an animal figurine, 8th century BCE. The slightly protruding jaw, round ears and remnants of mane identify this animal as a rare lion figurine. Beasts of prey were seldom depicted among figurines in the environs of Jerusalem of the First Temple period, making this a rare find. 150 typical Judahite figurine fragments we uncovered in the sifting. Consisting mostly of a variety of four legged animals (mostly horses, some with riders) . Since almost all known figurines from Judah are found in fragmented condition, some have related them to the Biblical account of Hezekiah’s or Josiah’s religious reforms, during which symbols of idol worship were systematically destroyed and abolished. The assemblage from the Temple Mount has an absence of foreign figurines and a high percentage of bird/pinched nose head fragments. We suspect that the absence of foreign motifs in the Temple Mount figurine assemblage may be related to a Judahite rejection of outside influences during the Iron Age II, which found it greatest manifestation in the cultic and national center on the Temple Mount.
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The Amulet Cartouche of Thutmose III (13th Cent. BCE)

A faience amulet, showing the cartouche of Thutmose III (15th century). Was most likely created during the late 14th or early 13th century, many years after the reign of Thutmose III.
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A Carved Finger of an Egyptian Statue (15th - 13th Cent. BCE)

A statue fragment — finger, complete with fingernail. Based on the finger size, the complete statue would have been the size of an adult, representing a god or Pharaoh. The statue, carved out of a dark metamorphic Egyptian rock, was brought to Egyptian-controlled Canaan during the Late Bronze period (15th–13th century BCE; 18th–20th Dynasty).